It has long been appreciated among clinical neuropsychologists that both primary and secondary factors contribute to cognitive dysfunction in neurological patients. Primary influences are the direct result of the extent and location of damage to the brain. Secondary influences stem from something associated with brain injury or disease besides the specific areas of the brain affected. For example, a patient with a neurological disease may develop depression, something which in turn often impacts cognitive functioning. Other secondary factors associated with disease besides depression can also negatively impact cognitive functioning, including anxiety, pain, fatigue, and motor impairments, to name a few. Despite the widespread appreciation of the importance of such secondary factors on cognitive functioning in clinical neuropsychology, there has never been a single source for this information that is readily available to clinicians and researchers. The present volume provides such a source, using an evidence-based framework comprised of two broad sections.
The first section includes chapters that comprehensively address particular secondary influences, independent of any particular neurological disorder. For example, there are chapters on the impact on cognitive functioning of depression, anxiety, fatigue, pain, diagnosis threat, and symptom invalidity. The second section has chapters that focus on specific neurological conditions and the most salient secondary factors that need to be considered in these conditions. Multiple Sclerosis, HIV, Parkinson's Disease, Traumatic Brain Injury, Alzheimer's Disease/MCI/Stroke, and Epilepsy are all considered. The chapters include vivid case studies that illustrate the principles outlined in the chapters to help clinicians consider how such principles can apply to particular patients. Chapters also include evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice. The final chapter highlights some areas especially in need of further research and study that will be of particular interest and importance to clinicians.
This is a very good book on the influence of the secondary factors on the results obtained in a neuropsychological assessment, as well as secondary factors most important to watch for a variety of neurological diseases and disorders. Several chapters using both the case studies and of the useful for clinicians summary tables. We should also remember that this would be the first book devoted exclusively to the influence of secondary factors. Simon Charbonneau, PhD. For working clinical neuropsychologists this book is a must ... a source of inspiration for new scientific developments. Christien Schilder, Tijdschrift Voor Neuropsychologie
Peter Arnett, PhD Director of Clinical Training Associate Professor of Psychology The Pennsylvania State University
Preface to the National Academy of Neuropsychological Series on Evidence-Based Practices ; Preface to the Second Volume in the National Academy of Neuropsychological Series on Evidence-Based Practices: Secondary Influences on Neuropsychological Test Performance ; Contributors 1. Introduction to secondary influences of neuropsychological test performance ; Peter Arnett ; Part I: Relationship of Affective Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Fatigue, Motor Impairments, Diagnosis Threat, and Effort to Cognitive Functioning ; 2. Symptom Invalidity on Neuropsychological Testing ; 3. Depression and affective disorders: Impact on the level of cognitive functioning ; 3. Neuropsychological Deficits in Major Depressive Disorder: Correlates and Conundrums of cognitive functioning ; Michael Basso, Ashely Miller, Eduardo Estevis and Dennis Combs ; 4. The Allure of Emotion: How Affective Stimuli Impact Cognitive Processing Among Patients with Mood Disorders content of cognitive functioning ; Bruce Christiansen and Matthew Kiing ; 5. The Anxiety on Cognitive Task Performance ; 6. Fatigue ; 6. Fatigue: Its Influence on Cognition and Assessment ; 7. Pain ; 7. The Impact of Pain and Pain-Related Factors on Cognitive Functioning ; 8. Motor Impairments ; 8. The Influence of Motor Impairments on Cognitive Functioning ; Peter Arnett, Gray Vargas, Dede Ukueberuwa and Amanda Rabinowitz ; 9. Response Expectancies and Their Potential Influence in Neuropsychological Evaluation ; Julie Suhr and Christina Wei ; Part II: Complexities in Assessing Secondary Influences in Specific Neurologic Conditions ; 10. Secondary Influences in Multiple Sclerosis ; Jared Bruce, Holly Westervelt, and Joanie Thelen ; 11. The Role of Secondary Factors in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders ; 12. Parkinson's Disease. Alexander Troster, Lindsay P. Prizer, and Amber Baxley ; 12. Parkinson's Disease: Secondary Influences on Cognition ; Alexander Troster, Lindsay Prizer and Amber Baxley ; 13. Traumatic Brain Injury and the Impact of Secondary Influences ; 14. Alzheimer's Disease/MCI/Stroke ; 14. Secondary Influences in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Stroke ; Stephen Miller and Antonio Nicholas Puente ; 15. Secondary Influences on Neuropsychological Test Performance in Epilepsy ; Bruce Hermann, David Loring, Dalin Pulsioher, Brian Bell, and Michael Seidenberg ; 16. Assessing Secondary Influences and Their Impact on Neuropsychological Test Performance: Summing Things up and Where We Need to Go From Here ; Index